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Collaborative Computational Project Number 14

for Single Crystal and Powder Diffraction


Miscellaneous Information about using the GPL'd Mondorescue for Linux

Using the GPL'd Mondorescue for Linux to create easy Linux system disaster recovery backups on bootable SCSI or Atapi/IDE CD-ROMs

The CCP14 Homepage is at http://www.ccp14.ac.uk

[Back to CCP14 Web/Config Main Page]

[CCP14 Mondorescue homepage | [Why use Mondorescue | Where to get Mondorescue | Compiling and installing Mondorescue]
[CD-ROM backups] | [DVD and DVD-RAM backups] | [Misc Mondorescue information] |

Misc guff that was relevant for sorting out issues with Mondorescue and might be relevant again

The following was dropped as getting mondorescue plus cdrecord or dvdrecord to work properly with DVD-RAM disks on the available Panasonic IDE DVD-RAM system was too kludge ridden and quirky. Dar backup was used instead - configured to write to the DVD-RAM disk as a more conventional removable disk system. Though one day after saying this, it was found possible to write a bootable iso image to a DVD-RAM disk and have the system boot off it. (thanks to Seth Kurtzberg for pointing this out). Thus it might be safer to use both DAR and Mondorescue (if it can be made to work reliably) rather than just relying on one backup software system.

After formatting the DVD-RAM in udf format and using dd - large iso images can be written to the DVD-RAM disk OK. Thus no need for dvdrecord and cdrecord - just use the "dd" command

  • udftools for Linux
    • At http://packages.debian.org/testing/otherosfs/udftools.html
    • At http://linux-udf.sourceforge.net
    • mkudffs - Format a device, creating an empty UDF filesystem
      • mkudffs --media-type=dvdram /dev/hdd
      • (Or if CD-RW): mkudffs --media-type=cdrw /dev/scd0

    • cdrwtool - Low-level drive management (e.g. set writing speed, format)
    • pktsetup - Set up a packet writing device (/dev/pktcdvd0) for a drive
      • cdrwtool -d /dev/hdd -q
        pktsetup /dev/pktcdvd0 /dev/hdd
        mount -t udf /dev/pktcdvd0 /mnt/dvd
        umount /dev/pktcdvd0
        pktsetup -d /dev/pktcdvd0

    • Make sure you have the following in the Redhat 7.3 /etc/rc.d/rc.local
      # Get the system able to read DVD UDF packet writing format
      # cat /proc/filesystems will check that this is being used
      /sbin/modprobe udf

  • mkudffs --media-type=dvdram /dev/scd0

  • dd if=/tmp/isos/1.iso of=/dev/scd0

To: dvdrtools-users@mail.freesoftware.fsf.org
From: Lachlan Cranswick 
Subject: RE: [Dvdrtools-users] Mashita DVD-RAM LF-D310
Date: Tue, 30 Jul 2002 14:04:11 +0100

>You may be interested in the following link.  I have not tried it yet.
>The following link talks about using dd to burn the iso image to the dvd
>drive intead of dvdrecord.
>Jim Riggs
>Sr. Systems Analyst - Linux
>WW Solutions Enablement
>IBM IntelliStation
>(919) 254-2403


Sorry for only responding now - as "work work" has been causing me to delete
many mailing list messages unread. (I wrote the above - rather rambling -

The "dd" method for burning ISO images to DVDRAM (thanks to Seth Kurtzberg 
for pointing this out to me) works well when I have tried it - e.g.,

  dd if=/tmp/isos/1.iso of=/dev/scd0 

But be wary that for the DVDRAM to be bootable (if this is 
relevant to you) - there may be a size limit for the ISO
image (i.e., possibly less than 1 Gig for it to be bootable).  
I have not had time yes to properly investigate this - hopefully 
in late August after attending a conference.


In the context of making disaster recovery DVD disks:

One possible strategy of using the free Mondorescue for bootable disaster
recovery and interactive restore disks -  would be to use a small DVDRAM disk for the 
first disk with only 900 Meg - then use the large DVDRAM disks for the
archives disks (if this makes sense). e.g., using the -s option (e.g,  -s

Also, be wary to specify the right /dev output device in the dd command - 
otherwise you will create a very large file in your /dev directory.
(the first time you make this mistake - it looks like the dd command
does not work - until you try to figure out why the / partition 
has grown very large)


Lachlan M. D. Cranswick

Collaborative Computational Project No 14 (CCP14)
    for Single Crystal and Powder Diffraction
  Birkbeck University of London and Daresbury Synchrotron Laboratory 
Postal Address: CCP14 - School of Crystallography,
                Birkbeck College,
                Malet Street, Bloomsbury,
                WC1E 7HX, London,  UK
Tel: (+44) 020 7631 6850   Fax: (+44) 020 7631 6803
E-mail: l.m.d.cranswick@dl.ac.uk   Room: B091
WWW: http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/

Dvdrtools-users mailing list

Date: Thu, 05 Sep 2002 21:11:25 +0100
From: Chris Lale [ctlale@netscape.net]
To: cdwrite@other.debian.org
Subject: Re: CDRW as a floppy

Dave Platt wrote:
> Chris Lale [ctlale@netscape.net] wrote:
>>Does anyone know of a way to format a CDRW in Linux so that is can be 
>>read and written to "on the fly"? Roxio Easy CD Creator that can do this 
>>'drag n drop format' in Windows so that you can use the CDRW disc like a 
>>giant floppy.
> Doing this in the "usual way" would require implementing the UDF
> filesystem format, in a read/rewrite mode.  The last time I looked,
> Linux could read UDF, but its ability to write it (from within the
> kernel) was extremely experimental, and required a boatload of
> rather precarious kernel patches.

Thanks to everyone. This seems to be it. My Debian 3.0 distro has a 
package called udftools claimed to work with 2.4 kernels and DVD/CD-R. 
This is part of the README:

As root, execute the following commands. (After "count=", supply the
required size in MB of the filesystem.)

    dd if=/dev/zero of=udfimage bs=1M count=10
    mkudffs udfimage
    mkdir udfmnt
    mount -o loop -t udf udfimage udfmnt

can copy data to the "udfmnt" directory. After an "umount udfmnt", the
file "udfimage" can be written to the medium.

I shall try this as soon as I can.

Chris Lale   [ctlale@netscape.net]
 From a PC running Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 and Netscape 7.

To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to cdwrite-request@other.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@other.debian.org

Linux System Backup using Mondorescue onto 4.5Gig DVD-RAM disks

This is still under development due to kludges in Linux, Atapi/IDE drives and Mondorescue

Making the IDE/Atapi CD-ROM and DVDRAM devices look like SCSI Devices in Redhat 7.3 Linux

We need to do the following to make the linux cdr software software happy as it will only write to SCSI devices.

Refer to: "SuSE Linux 7.0: Writing CDs with ATAPI writers" at http://sdb.suse.de/en/sdb/html/mkrapp-cdwriting-7.0.html. With a few minor changes, this is relevant to Redhat 7.2.

The following worked with Redhat 7.2 but no longer works with Redhat 7.3 - extra instructions given

To have the IDE/Atapi CD-ROM and DVD-RAM devices immediately look like SCSI devices, as root type /sbin/modprobe ide-scsi

Then do the following to make sure this has worked:

cdrecord -scanbus

Now relink the devices to match their new SCSI identities:

ln -sf /dev/scd0 /dev/cdrom

ln -sf /dev/scd1 /dev/cdrom1

Running as root:

cdrecord -scanbus

should now see the Atapi/IDE devices as SCSI devices.

For Redhat 7.3, to have the IDE/Atapi DVD-RAM device look like a SCSI device, :

Find out what device the DVDRAM is (in this case /dev/hdd - hdd)

Edit the /etc/lilo.conf (assuming you are using lilo.conf) and add the appropriate line such as append=" hdd=ide-scsi" after the "read-only" statement. E.g.,



Type lilo -v for this to update the boot setup then reboot.

Then do the following as root to make sure this has worked:

cdrecord -scanbus which should tell that this has worked.

Check that Redhat 7.3 has relinked the DVDram correctly by doing ls -al /dev/cd*

[root@mill dev]# ls -al cd*
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            8 May 10 12:24 cdrom -> /dev/hdc
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            9 May 10 16:39 cdrom1 -> /dev/scd0

If not do (in this example):

ln -sf /dev/scd0 /dev/cdrom1

Running as root:

cdrecord -scanbus

should now see the Atapi/IDE DVDRAM device as a SCSI device as per the following:

[root@mill root]# cdrecord -scanbus
Cdrecord 1.10 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2001 Jörg Schilling
Linux sg driver version: 3.1.22
Using libscg version 'schily-0.5'
        0,0,0     0) *
        0,1,0     1) *
        0,2,0     2) 'SEAGATE ' 'ST373405LC      ' '0002' Disk
        0,3,0     3) 'SEAGATE ' 'ST336737LC      ' '0105' Disk
        0,4,0     4) *
        0,5,0     5) *
        0,6,0     6) *
        0,7,0     7) *
        1,0,0   100) 'MATSHITA' 'DVD-RAM LF-D310 ' 'A112' Removable CD-ROM
        1,1,0   101) *
        1,2,0   102) *
        1,3,0   103) *
        1,4,0   104) *
        1,5,0   105) *
        1,6,0   106) *
        1,7,0   107) *
[root@mill root]#

Using cdrecord dev=1,0,0 -toc

[root@mill root]# cdrecord dev=1,0,0 -toc
Cdrecord 1.10 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2001 Jörg Schilling
scsidev: '1,0,0'
scsibus: 1 target: 0 lun: 0
Linux sg driver version: 3.1.22
Using libscg version 'schily-0.5'
Device type    : Removable CD-ROM
Version        : 0
Response Format: 2
Capabilities   :
Vendor_info    : 'MATSHITA'
Identifikation : 'DVD-RAM LF-D310 '
Revision       : 'A112'
Device seems to be: Generic mmc2 DVD.
Using generic SCSI-3/mmc CD driver (mmc_cd).
Driver flags   : SWABAUDIO
first: 1 last 1
track:   1 lba:         0 (        0) 00:02:00 adr: 1 control: 4 mode: -1
track:lout lba:   1218960 (  4875840) -1:59:74 adr: 1 control: 4 mode: -1

New updates in Mondorescue

From: "Hugo Rabson" [hugorabson@msn.com]
To: [mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net]
Subject: [Mondo-devel] new beta
X-Original-Date: Mon, 3 Jun 2002 12:50:33 -0500
Date: Mon, 3 Jun 2002 12:50:33 -0500


New daily snapshots are available. The RPM's and SRPM's are for i586 and 
are beta-quality releases. Major changes:-

- if you say, '-s 650,800' then your first CD will be assumed to be 650MB 
    and all following CD's will be assumed to be 800MB. If you want to be 
    more specific, you can say, '-s 650,800,800,800' :)

- afio uses 16MB buffer instead of 8MB; should speed up the restore 
    process by 5% or so

- /var/run/console is created after restoring, just in case

- if you have >1 copy of Mondo/Mindi then you are told to remove them



From: "Hugo Rabson" 
To: "Lachlan Cranswick" 
Subject: Re: [Mondo-devel] feature requests for mondorescue
Date: Mon, 3 Jun 2002 13:12:48 -0500
X-OriginalArrivalTime: 03 Jun 2002 18:13:33.0778 (UTC) FILETIME=[5F743B20:01C20B2A]

[1] and [3] are implemented in the latest daily snapshot - i.e. today's.
:) [2] works, after a fashion, but I haven't written any specialize code
yet. There used to be a --call-before-mkisofs, --call-burn-cd and
--call-after-mkisofs. The first and third have been turned into -B and
-A respectively. The middle one, I never implemented but I could fairly
easily. For now, you might want to stick with -A. BTW, _ISO_ resolves to
the ISO's filename and _CD#_ resolves to the ISO's index# (1, 2, 3,
etc.) in the argument. So:-

# ......  -A "cdrecord dev=0,0,0 -eject _ISO_; rm -f _ISO_"

should work & should give you an idea of how to call the relevant
program. I'm not sure how mondorestore would handle it, though. We would
need to compare notes on that.


From: "Hugo Rabson" [hugorabson@msn.com]
To: l.m.d.cranswick@dl.ac.uk, Mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net
Subject: Re: [Mondo-devel] feature requests for mondorescue
Date: Mon, 03 Jun 2002 15:03:56 +0100

Hi Lachlan,

>From: Lachlan Cranswick [l.m.d.cranswick@dl.ac.uk]
>To: Mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net
>1. (repeat)  Ability to restore selected directories to different
>   mount areas  (e.g., restore /home to /tmp/home)

Good idea. Mondo can already do selective restores. I could add a prompt for 
the restore directory (e.g. /tmp instead of /). The modification would be 
simple and would take half an hour. I'll add it to the daily snapshot today. 
Should be available tomorrow (in the daily snapshot, not in the official 

>2. Ability to explicitly state the command for the CD/device writing

Not hard. Actually, you can do something like this already but it's more of 
a trick than a solution. ;)

Normally, I do this to backup my laptop:-

# mondoarchive -Oc 4 -E /mnt/winB/KaZaA -g

If I were do to this:-

# mondoarchive -Oi -d /root -g -A "dd if=_ISO_ of=/dev/scd0 "

# mondoarchive -Oi -d /root -g -A "dd if=_ISO_ of=/dev/scd0; rm -f _ISO_"

then it would do something like what you're suggesting. I don't know if 
mondorestore would know what to do, though. :) If you boot from the first CD 
and can access the archives, or even if you have to boot from a floppy disk 
but then access the archives on the CD, then it'll probably be okay.

>3. Ability to have the size of the first backup disk to be different
>    from the remaining disks.

I could either add a flag to set _just_ the first CD's size or simply modify 
-s to allow for multiple sizes.

# mondoarchive -Oc 4 -s 700,650 -g

would let me use a 700MB CD for the first disk and 650MB CD's for remaining 
disks. (It won't work yet because I haven't modified the code.)

Which do folks prefer - a new flag or a modification of the existing -s 

[1] is on the TODO list.

[2] is already available, after a fashion.

[3] can be done very easily, as soon as we agree on which way it should go. 
(I like the idea of expanding '-s' but I'm willing to add another parameter 
if that's the will of the mailing list.)

[1] and [3] will be in the daily snapshot by the end of the week, I expect, 
at the very latest.


Backup using the DVDRam as a non-bootable removable drive

First thing you may have to do is make dvdrecord look like cdrecord

ln -s `which dvdrecord` /usr/bin/cdrecord

Under development still due to problems with Mondorescue

In this mode, the DVDRAM can be used as an external removable drive in IDE/ATAPI. Given this is the default mode of Linux, it would be best to remove the SCSI emulation for this method.

Unfortunately, Mondorescue seems to have a few problems here (May 2002) so the following may not work reliably. First mount the drive, then run mondoarchive assuming the disk has 2200 Meg capacity. After each disk is full, it should unmount the drive and then remount the new disk once it is inserted. The following assumes a large amount of /tmp space.

mount /dev/cdrom1 /storage/dvd

mondoarchive -g -s 2200m -L -S /tmp -T /tmp -Oi -d /storage/dvd -B "mount /storage/dvd" -A "umount /storage/dvd"

Backup using the DVDRam to create bootable DVDRam disks

Under development still due to problems with the cdrecorder software

In this mode, the DVDRam drive should be bootable and work like the above CD-ROM system backup example.

mondoarchive -g -s 2200m -L -S /tmp -T /tmp -Ow -d 1,0,0


mondoarchive -g -s 2200m -L -S /tmp -T /tmp -Ow -d /dev/scd0

Restoring a bootable DVD-RAM backup of a data partition

Just put the 1st DVD-RAM in the drive and reboot.

Unless you want to do a "nuke" reinstall, type interactive and follow the instructions. If you don't want to wipe the data disks (a good idea), type:


When the Editing Mountlist menu comes up, delete the unbacked up partitions from the table so that they will not be reformatted. If you are just restoring /web_logs - you would want to delete everything but /web_logs

Then do OK to continue.

Save the table, then when prompted, (unless you want to resize the paritions) DO NOT erase and partition the hard drives.

When prompted, format the hard drives (it will prompt before formatting each partition)

When prompted to restore all the data, say Yes. Mondoarchive will then restore all the data. (this is the happy bit)

Important bit: On the "Initialize the boot loader?" prompt, select No

When asked, No we did change the mount list.

When prompted, edit and check the fstab partition table and lilo.conf (this will happen in the vi editor). Then continue on.

Important bit: When prompted, select Yes to label the ext2 and ext3 partitions.

Wait until Mondorescue goes back to # prompt. Now make sure the CD-ROM is ejected and reboot the machine to bring back the restored operating system.

If things go beserk at this point (could do if you Initialized the boot loader or said that you changed the mount list). Reboot. On reboot it may not recognise the partitions you restored as they have no disk label. Go into recovery mode and use e2label

e.g., something like:

e2label /sdb1 /web_disc

Then reboot and things should mount OK on bootup.

Example of a previous patch via comp.os.linux.hardware

From: http://groups.google.com/groups?oi=djq&selm=an_356455229

From: NAGAI Hidetoshi (nagai@ai.kyutech.ac.jp)
 Subject: Panasonic DVD-RAM Drive LF-D100J 
 Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.hardware
 Date: 1998/05/22 

Probably, I succeeded to treat Panasonic DVD-RAM Drive LF-D100J
on Linux (kernel 2.0.33). 

(1) Need 2048 bytes/sector patch ( DVD-RAM has 2048 bytes/sector ).
    Please get it from http://liniere.gen.u-tokyo.ac.jp/2048.html

(2) Linux without patch recognizes the drive as CD-ROM. 
    Please try this patch AT YOUR RISK.
--- scsi.c~ Fri May 22 18:31:35 1998
+++ scsi.c Fri May 22 18:32:22 1998
@@ -534,6 +534,8 @@
   struct Scsi_Device_Template *sdtpnt;
   Scsi_Device * SDtail, *SDpnt=*SDpnt2;
   int bflags, type=-1;
+  static int PANA_DVD_RAM[2] = {-1,-1};
+  int org_lun = lun;
   SDtail = scsi_devices;
   if (scsi_devices)
@@ -546,6 +548,16 @@
   SDpnt->lun = lun;
   SDpnt->channel = channel;
+  if (PANA_DVD_RAM[0] == channel && PANA_DVD_RAM[1] == dev && lun == 1) {
+    /* get CD-ROM type */
+    SDpnt->lun = lun = 0;
+  } else {
+    /* clear status */
+    PANA_DVD_RAM[0] = -1;
+    PANA_DVD_RAM[1] = -1;
+  }
   /* Some low level driver could use device->type (DB) */
   SDpnt->type = -1;
@@ -646,6 +658,21 @@
     scsi_result[1] |= 0x80;     /* removable */
+  if (!strncmp (scsi_result + 8, "MATSHITA", 8) &&
+      !strncmp (scsi_result + 16, "PD-2 LF-D100", 12) &&
+      scsi_result[0] == TYPE_ROM) {
+    if (PANA_DVD_RAM[0] == channel && PANA_DVD_RAM[1] == dev && org_lun == 1) {
+      /* MATSUSHITA DVD-RAM LF-D100 treats as ROM */
+      lun = 1;
+    } else {
+      /* MATSUSHITA DVD-RAM LF-D100 treats as MOD */
+      scsi_result[0] = TYPE_MOD;
+      scsi_result[1] |= 0x80;     /* removable */
+      PANA_DVD_RAM[0] = channel;
+      PANA_DVD_RAM[1] = dev;
+    }
+  }
   if (!strncmp (scsi_result + 8, "NEC", 3)) {
     if (!strncmp (scsi_result + 16, "CD-ROM DRIVE:84 ", 16) ||
         !strncmp (scsi_result + 16, "CD-ROM DRIVE:25", 15))
@@ -812,6 +839,13 @@
     *max_dev_lun = 8;
     return 1;
+  if (PANA_DVD_RAM[0] == channel && PANA_DVD_RAM[1] == dev && org_lun == 1) {
+    *max_dev_lun = 2;
+    return 1;
+  }
    * We assume the device can't handle lun!=0 if: - it reports scsi-0 (ANSI
    * SCSI Revision 0) (old drives like MAXTOR XT-3280) or - it reports scsi-1

I could treat Music-CD, DATA-CD, PD, and DVD-RAM 
on Linux with these patch.
( I don't have other types of media that can be treated on this drive. )
But, DVD-RAM disc cannot be shared between Win95 and Linux.
Win95 driver treats 2048 bytes as 1 block (also on the partition table). 
Linux patch treats 512 bytes blocks ( divide 1 sector into 4 blocks ).
Are there a UDF driver for Linux? If you know, please tell me. :-)

Please try AT YOUR RISK. I cannot guarantee your success. 
But I'll be glad to get e-mails about your success. :-)

Date: Thu, 16 May 2002 15:58:58 +0200 (CEST)
From: Joerg Schilling 
Subject: Re: Enabling the key in cdrecord-prodvd?

>X-Sender: lzc@mserv1.dl.ac.uk

You need to put it into your environment.

e.g. it needs to be visible vith env(1)

As cdrecord will write CDs at lowest possible speed if a key with the 
"lowspeed" property is seen, you should put the key into a shell script

        CDR_SECURITY=8:dvd,clone,lowspeed:.... <= put full key here 
        export CDR_SECURITY 
        exec cdrecord-ProDVD "$@" 


From: Daniel Grandjean [Daniel.Grandjean@epfl.ch]
To: mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net
Subject: [Mondo-devel] For DVD - Mondo should support large file
Date: Tue, 14 May 2002 17:42:04 +0200 (MEST)


configure of mondo should check if large file support is
present on the system (lstat64 fopen64 lseek64 )
mondo should use lstat64|fopen64|lseek64 instead of

As an exemple, when the iso image is a large file (bigger than 2G)
the mondoarchive -V option fails as mondo-tools.c:does_file_exist
routine fails.

Otherwise, Mondo perform fine on DVD
Daniel Grandjean, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology     __  __
Address:     EPFL IT-TI, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland     |  \/  |
E-mail:      Daniel.Grandjean@epfl.ch                      |o ()o _
Phone:       +41 21 693 45 35   (Central European Time)    |__/\__/
Fax:         +41 21 693 22 20                              
WWW:         http://stiwww.epfl.ch                           \__/ 

From: Alan
To: Dvdrtools-users@mail.freesoftware.fsf.org
Subject: [Dvdrtools-users] Dvdrecord and recognising a MATSHITA DVD-RAM LF-D310 on Redhat7.3?]
Date: Tue, 14 May 2002 15:43:50 -0700


I'm another disappointed owner of the LF-D310, and I didn't get any
further than you.  I did get the device to work as read only device
under RedHat 7.2 and under SUSE 7.3, but could not burn DVD-R (I didn't
try DVD-RAM as it is quite different, see the udf area on sourceforge). 
I was sort of falsely encouraged by a German press report that SUSE now
supported DVD-R creation, but a call to their tech support in the US
confirmed that this is incorrect (it was a good excuse to try suse
anyway).  I tried the 1.11.a05 and a13 versions of dvdrecord (with some
of the custom patches that you also found), but I didn't have much
luck.  I did exchange emails with Panasonic's Industrial tech support
(for the DVD products), and they have no help for linux drivers at all. 
I requested information so I could write my own driver and have had no
reply.  I've gone to plan B, where I make an iso image on a unix
machine, and then burn the DVD-R under windows.  So far, this works, but
I too would prefer to transfer my data under one OS (and use the UDF

I've done some research on the web, and found mostly bad news for this
drive.  There are more references to using the Pioneer DVD drives than
the Panasonic, and folks seem to have an easier time getting them to
work.  I also contacted Jörg Schilling by email to see if he had any
experience with the LF-D310, and passed on what I little data that I
had.  If you check out his cdrecord web site, you can see that he has
had lots of problems with the scsi emulation for Atapi drives.  He says
that he is having a worse time with this Panasonic drive as it seems to
do some things in a broken fashion.  I think that he is likely right.
I'm also of the opinion that someone is trying to make it more difficult
for open source developers to roll their own DVD-R software.

It sounds like you are on the right track and have the drive working (as
I did), but I didn't get any further (and you have even tried newer
versions of the tool).  I'm interested in helping in the development
effort, but need to learn a bit more in order to be of much real help. 
My guess is that most of the problems are quirks of the drive, and will
work through with time.  If anyone knows of a way we owners can help,
please let me know.


Summary of commands of Interest



/sbin/modprobe ide-scsi 

ln -sf /dev/scd0 /dev/cdrom 

ln -sf /dev/scd1 /dev/cdrom1 

dvdrecord  -scanbus 
dvdrecord  -scanbus dev=ATAPI 
dvdrecord  -dao -v speed=24 dev=ATAPI:0,0 

dvdrecord  dev=1,0,0 -toc

mke2fs -b 2048 /dev/scd0

mke2fs -b 2048 /dev/hdd 

mount /dev/hdd /storage/dvd 

mount /dev/scd0 /storage/dvd 

mount -t iso9660  /dev/scd0 /storage/dvd 

mount -t ext3  /dev/scd0 /storage/dvd 

mount -t udf  /dev/scd0 /storage/dvd 

mount /dev/scd0 /storage/dvd 

mondoarchive -L -s 950m -I /web_disc -Oi -d /tmp/isos

cdrecord  dev=1,0,0 -v 1.iso

        2) Create your own DVD from fs tree on current directory
                (DVD-R & DVD-RW):

                Step 1: "mkisofs -R -J  -o somefile ."
                Step 2: "cdrecord dev=b,t,l -v somefile"

        2a) Create your own DVD from fs tree on current directory
            Non Large File variant:

                Step 1: "mkisofs -R -J  -split-output -o somefile ."
                Step 2: "cdrecord dev=b,t,l -v somefile*"

        mkisofs will create several approx. 1 GB files named:
                somefile_00, somefile_01, somefile_02, ...

        cdrecord will activate the Virtual Track method for writing.

cdrecord  -v dev=1,0,0 /tmp/isos/split*

e2label /sdb1 /web_disc

mondoarchive -L -s 950m -I /web_disc -Oc 2 -d 1,0,0

mondoarchive -L -s 2220m -E /web_disc -Oi -d /storage/dvd 

mondoarchive -L -s 2220m -E "/web_disc /web_logs" -g -Oi -d /storage/dvd 

mondoarchive -L -E /web_disc -Oi -d /storage/dvd -g -B "mount /storage/dvd" -A "umount /storage/dvd" -s 2220m 

mondoarchive -L -g -E "/web_disc /web_logs" -Oi -d /web_disc/ccp14/temp 

mondoarchive -S /tmp -T /tmp -L -E "/web_disc /web_logs" -S /web_disc/ccp14/temp -Oi -d /web_disc/ccp14/temp 

mondoarchive -Oi -d /mnt/zip -g -B "mount /mnt/zip" -A "umount /mnt/zip" -s 100m 

mondoarchive -L -s 2220m -E "/web_disc /web_logs" -Ow -d 1,0,0 

mondoarchive -S /tmp -T /tmp -Ow 1 -d /dev/scd0 -L -s 2220m -E "/web_disc /web_logs" 

mondoarchive -g -L -s 2220m -E "/web_disc /web_logs" -Oi -d /tmp/isos

Verify an existing archive (16 is speed): 
mondoarchive -Vc 16 

cdrecord dev=1,0,0 -v 1.iso

cdrecord dev=1,0,0 -v mindi.iso

dvdrecord dev=1,0,0 -v mindi.iso

dvdrecord dev=1,0,0 -v blank=fast 

dvdrecord  dev=1,0,0 -v blank=all

dvdrecord  -dao -v dev=1,0,0 -data -eject 1.iso 

cdrecord dev=1,0,0 -packet -v mindi.iso

cdrecord dev=1,0,0 -packet -v /tmp/isos/1.iso

cdrecord -dummy dev=1,0,0 -packet -v /tmp/isos/1.iso

cdrecord dev=1,0,0  -packet -v blank=all

Mount and view an ISO image: 
mkdir /mnt/isoimage 
mount -t iso9660 -o loop 1.iso /mnt/isoimage 

cat /proc/scsi/scsi

man hdparm

(says whether the drive is recognised as DVD-RAM)
cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info

dvdrecord  -scanbus 

dvdrecord -v -inq dev=1,0,0

dvdrecord -v -checkdrive dev=1,0,0

cdrecord -v -checkdrive dev=1,0,0

mondoarchive -g -S /tmp -T /tmp -L -s 2220m -E "/web_disc /web_logs" -Oi -d /tmp/isos 

dvdrecord -v -ignsize -dao dev=1,0,0 -data /tmp/isos/1.img



dvdrecord --help

dvdrecord --help

dvdrecord: Usage: dvdrecord [options] track1...trackn
        -version        print version information and exit
        dev=target      SCSI target to use as CD/DVD-Recorder
        timeout=#       set the default SCSI command timeout to #.
        debug=#,-d      Set to # or increment misc debug level
        kdebug=#,kd=#   do Kernel debugging
        -verbose,-v     increment general verbose level by one
        -Verbose,-V     increment SCSI command transport verbose level by one
        -silent,-s      do not print status of failed SCSI commands
        driver=name     user supplied driver name, use with extreme care
        driveropts=opt  a comma separated list of driver specific options
        -checkdrive     check if a driver for the drive is present
        -prcap          print drive capabilities for MMC compliant drives
        -inq            do an inquiry for the drive and exit
        -scanbus        scan the SCSI bus and exit
        -reset          reset the SCSI bus with the cdrecorder (if possible)
        -overburn       allow to write more than the official size of a medium
        -ignsize        ignore the known size of a medium (may cause problems)
        -useinfo        use *.inf files to overwrite audio options.
        speed=#         set speed of drive
        blank=type      blank a CD-RW disc (see blank=help)
        fs=#            Set fifo size to # (0 to disable, default is 4 MB)
        -load           load the disk and exit (works only with tray loader)
        -eject          eject the disk after doing the work
        -dummy          do everything with laser turned off
        -msinfo         retrieve multi-session info for mkisofs >= 1.10
        -toc            retrieve and print TOC/PMA data
        -atip           retrieve and print ATIP data
        -multi          generate a TOC that allows multi session
                        In this case default track type is CD-ROM XA2
        -fix            fixate a corrupt or unfixated disk (generate a TOC)
        -nofix          do not fixate disk after writing tracks
        -waiti          wait until input is available before opening SCSI
        -force          force to continue on some errors to allow blanking bad disks
        -dao            Write disk in DAO mode. This option will be replaced inthe future.
        -raw            Write disk in RAW mode. This option will be replaced inthe future.
        -raw96r         Write disk in RAW/RAW96R mode. This option will be replaced in the future.
        -raw96p         Write disk in RAW/RAW96P mode. This option will be replaced in the future.
        -raw16          Write disk in RAW/RAW16 mode. This option will be replaced in the future.
        tsize=#         Length of valid data in next track
        padsize=#       Amount of padding for next track
        pregap=#        Amount of pre-gap sectors before next track
        defpregap=#     Amount of pre-gap sectors for all but track #1
        mcn=text        Set the media catalog number for this CD to 'text'
        isrc=text       Set the ISRC number for the next track to 'text'
        index=list      Set the index list for the next track to 'list'
        -text           Write CD-Text from information from *.inf files
        textfile=name   Set the file with CD-Text data to 'name'
        -audio          Subsequent tracks are CD-DA audio tracks
        -data           Subsequent tracks are CD-ROM data mode 1 (default)
        -mode2          Subsequent tracks are CD-ROM data mode 2
        -xa1            Subsequent tracks are CD-ROM XA mode 1
        -xa2            Subsequent tracks are CD-ROM XA mode 2
        -cdi            Subsequent tracks are CDI tracks
        -isosize        Use iso9660 file system size for next data track
        -preemp         Audio tracks are mastered with 50/15 µs preemphasis
        -nopreemp       Audio tracks are mastered with no preemphasis (default)
        -copy           Audio tracks have unlimited copy permission
        -nocopy         Audio tracks may only be copied once for personal use (default)
        -scms           Audio tracks willl not not have any copy permission at all
        -pad            Pad data tracks with 15 zeroed sectors
                        Pad audio tracks to a multiple of 2352 bytes
        -nopad          Do not pad data tracks (default)
        -shorttrack     Subsequent tracks may be non Red Book < 4 seconds if in DAO mode
        -noshorttrack   Subsequent tracks must be >= 4 seconds
        -swab           Audio data source is byte-swapped (little-endian/Intel)
The type of the first track is used for the toc type.
Currently only form 1 tracks are supported.

dvdrecord blank=help

dvdrecord blank=help
Blanking options:
        all             blank the entire disk
        disc            blank the entire disk
        disk            blank the entire disk
        fast            minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
        minimal         minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
        track           blank a track
        unreserve       unreserve a track
        trtail          blank a track tail
        unclose         unclose last session
        session         blank last session

Man dvdrecord

DVDRECORD(1)          Schily's USER COMMANDS         DVDRECORD(1)

       dvdrecord  -  record  audio or data Compact Discs and DVDs
       from a master

       dvdrecord [ general options ] dev=device [ track options ]

       Cdrecord  is used to record data or audio Compact Discs on
       an Orange Book CD-Recorder.

       The  device  refers  to  scsibus/target/lun  of  the   CD-
       Recorder.  Communication  on  SunOS  is done with the SCSI
       general driver scg.  Other operating systems are  using  a
       library  simulation  of  this driver.  Possible syntax is:
       dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In the latter
       case,  the  CD-Recorder has to be connected to the default
       SCSI bus of the machine.   Scsibus,  target  and  lun  are
       integer numbers.  Some operating systems or SCSI transport
       implementations may require to specify a filename in addi-
       tion.   In this case the correct syntax for the device is:
       dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun or dev= devicename:tar-
       get,lun.   If  the  name  of the device node that has been
       specified on such a system  refers  to  exactly  one  SCSI
       device,  a shorthand in the form dev= devicename:@ or dev=
       devicename:@,lun may  be  used  instead  of  dev=  device-

       To  access  remote  SCSI  devices, you need to prepend the
       SCSI device name by a remote device indicator. The  remote
       device   indicator   is   either   REMOTE:user@host:  or
       A valid remote SCSI device name may be:  REMOTE:user@host:
       to     allow     remote     SCSI     bus    scanning    or
       REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI device  at  host
       connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0 lun 0.

       To make dvdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syn-
       tax dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as  is
       hides  OS  specific  knowledge about device names from the
       user.  A specific OS must not necessarily support a way to
       specify a real device file name nor a way to specify scsi-

       Scsibus 0 is the default SCSI bus on  the  machine.  Watch
       the  boot  messages  for  more  information  or  look into
       /var/adm/messages for more information about the SCSI con-
       figuration  of your machine.  If you have problems to fig-
       ure out what values for scsibus,target,lun should be used,
       try the -scanbus option of dvdrecord described below.

       If a file /etc/dvdrecord.conf exists, the parameter to the
       dev= option may also be a drive name label  in  said  file
       (see FILES section).

       On  SVr4  compliant  systems,  dvdrecord uses the the real
       time class to get the highest scheduling priority that  is
       possible  (higher  than all kernel processes).  On systems
       with POSIX real time scheduling dvdrecord uses  real  time
       scheduling  too,  but  may  not be able to gain a priority
       that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a  single
       file  that  contains the prepared data for that track.  If
       the argument is `-',  standard  input  is  used  for  that
       track.  Only one track may be taken from stdin.

       General  options  must  be  before  any track file name or
       track option.

              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general  verbosity  by  one.
              This  is  used  e.g. to display the progress of the
              writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI com-
              mand  transport  by one.  This helps to debug prob-
              lems during the writing process, that occur in  the
              CD-Recorder.   If  you  get  incomprehensible error
              messages you should  use  this  flag  to  get  more
              detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content
              in addition.  Using -V or -VV slows down  the  pro-
              cess and may be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
              Set  the  misc  debug  value to # (with debug=#) or
              increment the misc debug level by one (with -d). If
              you  specify -dd, this equals to debug=2.  This may
              help to find problems while opening  a  driver  for
              libscg  as  well  as  with  sector sizes and sector
              types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may
              be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell  the  scg-driver  to  modify  the kernel debug
              value while SCSI commands are running.

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report  for  failed  SCSI

       -force Force to continue on some errors.  This option cur-
              rently implements some tricks that will  allow  you
              to blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -dummy The  CD-Recorder  will  go through all steps of the
              recording process, but the laser is turned off dur-
              ing  this procedure.  It is recommended to run sev-
              eral tests before actually  writing  to  a  Compact
              Disk, if the timing and load response of the system
              is not known.

       -dao   Set Disk At Once mode.  This currently  only  works
              with  MMC drives that support Session At Once mode.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this  option  defaults
              to -raw96r.
              Select  Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors
              plus 96 bytes of raw P-W subchannel data  resulting
              in  a  sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the pre-
              ferred raw writing mode as it  gives  best  control
              over the CD writing process.

              Select  Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors
              plus 96 bytes of packed P-W subchannel data result-
              ing  in  a  sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the
              less preferred raw  writing  mode  as  only  a  few
              recorders  support  it  and some of these recorders
              have bugs in the  firmware  implementation.   Don't
              use  this mode if your recorder supports -raw96r or

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte  sectors
              plus  6 bytes of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a
              sector size of 2368 bytes.  If a recorder does  not
              support  -raw96r, this is the preferred raw writing
              mode.  It  does  not  allow  to  write  CD-Text  or
              CD+Grahpics  but it is the only raw writing mode in
              cheap CD writers.  As these cheap writers  in  most
              cases  do  not  support  -dao mode.  Don't use this
              mode if your recorder supports -raw96r.

       -multi Allow multi session CD's  to  be  made.  This  flag
              needs to be present on all sessions of a multi ses-
              sion disk, except you want to create a session that
              will  be  the last session on the media.  The fixa-
              tion will be done in a  way  that  allows  the  CD-
              Recorder  to append additional sessions later. This
              is done by generation a TOC with a link to the next
              program  area.  The  so generated media is not 100%
              compatible  to  manufactured   CD's   (except   for
              CDplus).   Use  only for recording of multi session
              CD's.  If this option is present, the default track
              type  is CD-ROM XA mode 2.  The Sony drives have no
              hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2.  You have to
              specify  the  -data option in order to create multi
              session  disks  on  these  drives.   As   long   as
              dvdrecord does not have a coder for converting data
              sectors to audio sectors, you need to force  CD-ROM
              sectors  by  including the -data option if you like
              to record a multisession disk in DAO/SAO mode.  Not
              all drives allow multisession CD's in DAO/SAO mode.

              Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable  for
              mkisofs-1.10 or later.

              This  option  makes  only sense with a CD that con-
              tains at least one closed session and is appendable
              (not finally closed yet).  Some drives create error
              messages if you try to get the multi  session  info
              for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of content or  PMA
              of  a  CD.   With  this option, dvdrecord will work
              with CD-R drives and with CD-ROM drives.
       -atip  Retrieve and print out the ATIP (absolute  Time  in
              Pregroove) info of a CD recordable or CD rewritable
              media.  With this option,  dvdrecord  will  try  to
              retrieve  the  ATIP  info. If the actual drive does
              not support to read the ATIP info, it may  be  that
              only  a  reduced set of information records or even
              nothing is displayed. Only a limited number of  MMC
              compliant drives support to read the ATIP info.

              If  dvdrecord is able to retrieve the lead-in start
              time for the first session, it will try  to  decode
              and print the manufacturer info from the media.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-
              Reader will be written).  This may be used, if  for
              some  reason the disk has been written but not fix-
              ated. This option currently does not work with  old
              TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do  not  fixate  the disk after writing the tracks.
              This may be used to create an audio disk in  steps.
              An un-fixated disk can usually not be used on a non
              CD-writer type drive but there are audio CD players
              that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait  for  input  to  become  available on standard
              input before trying to open the SCSI  driver.  This
              allows  dvdrecord  to  read  it's input from a pipe
              even when writing additional sessions  to  a  multi
              session  disk.   When  writing another session to a
              multi session disk, mkisofs needs to read  the  old
              session  from  the  device  before  writing output.
              This cannot be done if  dvdrecord  opens  the  SCSI
              driver at the same time.

       -load  Load  the  media  and  exit. This only works with a
              tray loading mechanism but seems to be useful  when
              using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing  the  work.  Some Devices
              (e.g. Philips) need to eject the medium before cre-
              ating  a  new disk. Doing a -dummy test and immedi-
              ately creating a real disk would not work on  these

              Set  the  speed factor of the writing process to #.
              # is an integer, representing  a  multiple  of  the
              audio speed.  This is about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM and
              about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio.  If no speed option is
              present,  dvdrecord will try to get the speed value
              from the CDR_SPEED environment.  If your drive  has
              problems  with  speed=2  or speed=4, you should try

              Blank a CD-RW and exit  or  blank  a  CD-RW  before
              writing. The blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display  a  list  of  possible blanking

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take  a
                          long time.

              fast        Minimally  blank the disk. This results
                          in erasing the PMA,  the  TOC  and  the

              track       Blank a track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.
       If  used together with the -force flag, this option may be
       used  to  blank  CD-RW  disks  that  otherwise  cannot  be
       blanked.  Note  that  you  may  need  to specify blank=all
       because some drives will not continue with  certain  types
       of  bad CD-RW disks. Note also that cdecord does it's best
       if the -force flag is used but it finally depends  on  the
       drive's  firmware whether the blanking operation will suc-
       ceed or not.

       fs=#   Set the fifo (ring buffer) size to #.  You may  use
              the  same  method  as  in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).
              The number representing the size is taken in  bytes
              unless  otherwise  specified.   If a number is fol-
              lowed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s'  of
              `f',   the   size   is  multiplied  by  512,  1024,
              1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.  If the size  consists  of
              numbers  separated by `x' or `*', multiplication of
              the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k  will
              specify a fifo size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the fs= argument includes the
              shared memory that is  needed  for  administration.
              This  is  at  least  one page of memory.  If no fs=
              option is present, dvdrecord will try  to  get  the
              fifo  size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.
              The default fifo size is currently 4 MB.

              The fifo is used to increase buffering for the real
              time writing process.  It allows to run a pipe from
              mkisofs directly into dvdrecord.  If  the  fifo  is
              active  and  a  pipe from mkisofs into dvdrecord is
              used to create a CD, dvdrecord will abort prior  to
              do  any  modifications  on the disk if mkisofs dies
              before it starts  writing.   The  recommended  fifo
              size  is  between  4  and  32 MBytes.  As a rule of
              thumb, the fifo size should be at  least  equal  to
              the  size of the internal buffer of the CD-Recorder
              and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM
              available  in the machine.  If the fifo size is big
              enough, the fifo statistics will print a fifo empty
              count  of  zero  and the fifo min fill is not below
              20%.  It is not wise to use too much space for  the
              fifo.  If  you need more than 8 MB to write a CD on
              an idle machine, your machine is  either  underpow-
              ered,  has  hardware problems or is mis-configured.
              The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2)  has
              only  MMU page table entries for 16 MBytes per pro-
              cess. Using more than 14 MBytes for  the  fifo  may
              cause  the  operating  system in this case to spend
              much time to  constantly  reload  the  MMU  tables.
              Newer  machines from Sun do not have this MMU hard-
              ware problem. I have no information on  PC-hardware
              reflecting this problem.

              If  you  have  buffer underruns or similar problems
              and observe a zero fifo empty count, you have hard-
              ware problems. The fifo size in this case is suffi-

              Sets the SCSI target for the CD-Recorder, see notes
              above.  A typical device specification is dev=6,0 .
              If a filename must be provided  together  with  the
              numerical  target  specification,  the  filename is
              implementation specific.  The correct  filename  in
              this case can be found in the system specific manu-
              als of the target operating system.  On  a  FreeBSD
              system  without  CAM  support,  you need to use the
              control device (e.g.   /dev/rcd0.ctl).   A  correct
              device   specification   in   this   case   may  be
              dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              On Linux,  drives  connected  to  a  parallel  port
              adapter are mapped to a virtual SCSI bus. Different
              adapters are mapped to different  targets  on  this
              virtual SCSI bus.
              If  no dev option is present, dvdrecord will try to
              get the device from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If the argument to the dev= option does not contain
              the  characters  ',', '/', '@' or ':', it is inter-
              preted as an label name that may be  found  in  the
              file /etc/dvdrecord.conf (see FILES section).

              Set  the  default  SCSI  command timeout value to #
              seconds.  The default SCSI command timeout  is  the
              minimum timeout used for sending SCSI commands.  If
              a SCSI command fails due to a timeout, you may  try
              to raise the default SCSI command timeout above the
              timeout value of the failed command.  If  the  com-
              mand  runs correctly with a raised command timeout,
              please report the better timeout value and the cor-
              responding  command  to  the author of the program.
              If no timeout option is present, a default  timeout
              of 40 seconds is used.

              Allows  to  use a user supplied driver name for the
              device.  To get a  list  of  possible  drivers  use
              driver=help.   The reason for the existence of this
              option is to allow  users  to  use  dvdrecord  with
              drives that are similar to supported drives but not
              known directly by dvdrecord.  Use this option  with
              extreme  care.  If  a  wrong  driver  is used for a
              device, the possibility of creating corrupted disks
              is  high.   The  minimum problem related to a wrong
              driver is that the -speed or -dummy will not  work.

              There  are  two special driver entries in the list:
              cdr_simul and dvd_simul.  These driver entries  are
              designed  to make timing tests at any speed or tim-
              ing tests for drives that do not support the -dummy
              option.   The  simulation drivers implement a drive
              with a buffer size of 1MB that can be  changed  via
              the  CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE  environment  variable.  The
              simulation driver correctly simulates even a buffer
              underrun  condition.   If the -dummy option is pre-
              sent, the simulation is not aborted in  case  of  a
              buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set driver specific options. The options are speci-
              fied a comma separated list.   To  get  a  list  of
              valid options use driveropts=help together with the
              -checkdrive option.  Currently  only  the  burnfree
              option  is  implemented  to support Buffer Underrun
              Free writing with drives that support Buffer Under-
              run  Free  technology.   This  may be called: Sanyo
              BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link or similar.

              Checks if a driver for the current drive is present
              and exit.  If the drive is a known drive, dvdrecord
              uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compli-
              ant  drives as obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values
              marked with kB use 1000 bytes as kilo-byte,  values
              marked with KB use 1024 bytes as Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info
              and exit.

              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and  print
              the  inquiry  strings.  This  option may be used to
              find SCSI address of the CD-Recorder on  a  system.
              The  numbers printed out as labels are computed by:
              bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder  is
              located. This works not on all operating systems.

              Allow  dvdrecord  to  write  more than the official
              size of a medium. This feature  is  usually  called
              overburning and depends on the fact that most blank
              media may hold more space than the  official  size.
              As  the  official  size of the lead-out area on the
              disk is 90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a  disk  usu-
              ally  works  if  there  are at least 150 sectors of
              lead out, all media may be overburned by  at  least
              88  seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD recorders only
              do overburning in DAO mode.  Known  exceptions  are
              TEAC   CD-R50S,  TEAC  CD-R55S  and  the  Panasonic
              CW-7502. There is no guarantee that your drive sup-
              ports  overburning at all.  Make a test to check if
              your drive implements the feature.

              Ignore the known size of the medium.  This  options
              should  be  used  with extreme care, it exists only
              for debugging purposes don't use it for other  rea-
              sons.   It  is  not needed to write disks with more
              than the nominal  capacity.   This  option  implies

              Use  *.inf  files  to  overwrite audio options.  If
              this option is used, the pregap size information is
              read  from  the  *.inf file that is associated with
              the file that contains the audio data for a  track.

              Set  the default pre-gap size for all tracks except
              track number 1.  This option currently  only  makes
              sense  with  the TEAC drive when creating track-at-
              once disks without the 2 second silence before each
              This option may go away in future.

              Set  Packet  writing mode.  This is an experimental

              Set the paket size to #, forces fixed packet  mode.
              This is an experimental interface.

              Do not close the current track, useful only when in
              packet  writing  mode.   This  is  an  experimental

              Set   the   Media  Catalog  Number  of  the  CD  to

       -text  Write CD-Text created  by  cdrecord  and  based  on
              information  taken  from a file that contains ascii
              information for the text  strings.  Currently  only
              the  format  in the *.inf files created by cdda2wav
              is supported. You need to use the  -useinfo  option
              in addition in order to tell cdrecord to read these
              files. If you like to write your own CD-Text infor-
              mation, edit the *.inf files with a text editor and
              change the field that are relevant for CD-Text.

              Write CD-Text based on  information  found  in  the
              binary  file  filename.   This  file  must  contain
              information in a data format defined in the  SCSI-3
              MMC-2  standard  and in the Red Book. The four byte
              size header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of cor-
              rect data less ambiguous.  This is the best  option
              to  be  used to copy CD-Text data from existing CDs
              that already carry CD-Text information. To get data
              in  a  format suitable for this option use cdrecord
              -vv -toc to extract the information from disk.

       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

              Set the International Standard Recording Number for
              the next track to ISRC_number.

              Sets  an  index  list for the next track.  In index
              list is a comma separated list of numbers that  are
              counting from index 1. The first entry in this list
              must contain a 0, the following numbers must be  an
              ascending  list  of  numbers (counting in 1/75 sec-
              onds) that represent the start of the  indices.  An
              index  list  in the form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1
              to the start of the track, index 2 100 seconds from
              the start of the track and index 3 200 seconds from
              the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written  in  CD-DA (similar to Red Book) audio for-
              mat.  The file with data  for  this  tracks  should
              contain  stereo,  16-bit  digital  audio with 44100
              samples/s.  The byte order should be the following:
              MSB  left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left
              and so on. The track should be a multiple  of  2352
              bytes.  It  is not possible to put the master image
              of an audio track on a raw disk because  data  will
              be  read  in  multiple  of  2352  bytes  during the
              recording process.

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is  con-
              sidered   to  be  a  structured  audio  data  file.
              Cdrecord assumes that the file in this  case  is  a
              Sun  audio  file  or  a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
              extracts the audio data from the files by  skipping
              over  the  non-audio  header  information.   In all
              other cases, dvdrecord will only work correctly  if
              the  audio  data  stream  does not have any header.
              Because many structured audio files do not have  an
              integral   number  of  blocks  (1/75th  second)  in
              length, it is often necessary to specify  the  -pad
              option  as  well.   dvdrecord recognizes that audio
              data in a .WAV file is  stored  in  Intel  (little-
              endian)  byte  order,  and will automatically byte-
              swap the data if  the  CD  recorder  requires  big-
              endian  data.   Cdrecord will reject any audio file
              that does not match the Red  Book  requirements  of
              16-bit  stereo  samples in PCM coding at 44100 sam-

              Using other structured audio data formats as  input
              to  dvdrecord will usually work if the structure of
              the data is the structure described above (raw  pcm
              data  in  big-endian  byte order).  However, if the
              data format includes a  header,  you  will  hear  a
              click at the start of a track.

              If  neither  -data  nor -audio have been specified,
              dvdrecord defaults to -audio for all filenames that
              end  in  .au  or  .wav  and  to -data for all other

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is  assumed  to
              be  in  byte-swapped  (little-endian)  order.  Some
              types of CD-Writers e.g. Yamaha, Sony and  the  new
              SCSI-3/mmc  drives  require  audio  data to be pre-
              sented in little-endian order, while other  writers
              require  audio  data  to  be  presented in the big-
              endian (network) byte order normally  used  by  the
              SCSI  protocol.   Cdrecord  knows  if a CD-Recorder
              needs audio data in big-  or  little-endian  order,
              and  corrects  the byte order of the data stream to
              match the needs of the recorder.  You only need the
              -swab flag if your data stream is in Intel (little-
              endian) byte order.

              Note that the verbose output of dvdrecord will show
              you if swapping is necessary to make the byte order
              of the input data fit the required  byte  order  of
              the  recorder.   Cdrecord  will not show you if the
              -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written  in CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The
              data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.   The  file  with
              track data should contain an ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge
              filesystem image (see mkisofs for more details). If
              the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment
              size should be set to 2 KB or  more  to  allow  CR-
              drives  with  2  KB  sector  size to to be used for

              -data is the default, if no other flag is  present.

              If  neither  -data  nor -audio have been specified,
              dvdrecord defaults to -audio for all filenames that
              end  in  .au  or  .wav  and  to -data for all other

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written in CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data is a mul-
              tiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written  in  CD-ROM XA mode 1 format. The data is a
              multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written  in  CD-ROM XA mode 2 format. The data is a
              multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written  in  CDI  format. The data is a multiple of
              2048 bytes.

              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as  the  size  of
              the  next track.  This option is needed if you want
              dvdrecord to directly read the  image  of  a  track
              from  a raw disk partition or from a TAO master CD.
              In the first case the option -isosize is needed  to
              limit  the  size  of  the CD to the size of the ISO
              filesystem.  In the second case the option -isosize
              is needed to prevent dvdrecord from reading the two
              run out  blocks  that  are  appended  by  each  CD-
              recorder  in  track at once mode. These two run out
              blocks cannot be read  and  would  cause  a  buffer
              under  run  that  would cause a defective copy.  Do
              not use this option on files created by mkisofs and
              in  case dvdrecord reads the track data from stdin.
              In the first case, you would prevent dvdrecord from
              writing   the  amount  of  padding  that  has  been
              appended by mkisofs and in the latter case, it will
              not work because stdin is not seekable.

              If  -isosize  is  used  for a track, dvdrecord will
              automatically add padding for this track as if  the
              -pad option has been used but the amount of padding
              may be less than the padding  written  by  mkisofs.
              Note  that if you use -isosize on a track that con-
              tains Sparc boot information, the boot  information
              will be lost.

              Note also that this option cannot be used to deter-
              mine the size of a file system if the multi session
              option is present.

       -pad   If  the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed
              data will be added to the end of this and each sub-
              sequent  data track.  In this case, the -pad option
              is superseded  by  the  padsize=  option.  It  will
              remain  however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If
              the -pad option refers to an audio track, dvdrecord
              will  pad  the  audio data to be a multiple of 2352
              bytes.  The audio data padding is done with  binary
              zeroes which is equal to absolute silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

              Set the amount of data to be appended as padding to
              the next track to #.  Opposed to  the  behavior  of
              the -pad option, the value for padsize= is reset to
              zero for each new track.  See fs= option for possi-
              ble arguments.  Use this option if your CD-drive is
              not able to read the last sectors of a track or  if
              you  want to be able to read the CD on a Linux sys-
              tem with the ISO-9660 filesystem  read  ahead  bug.
              If  an  empty  file  is  used  for track data, this
              option may  be  used  to  create  a  disk  that  is
              entirely made of padding.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

              Allow  all  subsequent  tracks  to violate the Read
              Book track length standard which requires a minimum
              track  length  of  4  seconds.  This option is only
              useful when used in DAO mode.  Not all drives  sup-
              port  this  feature.  The  drive must be accept the
              resulting CUE sheet.

              Re-enforce the  Red  Book  track  length  standard.
              Tracks must be at least 4 seconds.

              Set  the   pre-gap  size  for the next track.  This
              option currently only makes  sense  with  the  TEAC
              drive when creating track-at-once disks without the
              2 second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse-
              quent  audio  tracks  will  indicate that the audio
              data has been sampled with 50/15 µsec  preemphasis.
              The  data,  however is not modified during the pro-
              cess of  transferring  from  file  to  disk.   This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse-
              quent audio tracks will  indicate  that  the  audio
              data  has  been mastered with linear data - this is
              the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse-
              quent  audio  tracks of the resulting CD will indi-
              cate that the  audio  data  has  permission  to  be
              copied without limit.  This option has no effect on
              data tracks.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse-
              quent  audio  tracks of the resulting CD will indi-
              cate that the  audio  data  has  permission  to  be
              copied  only  once  for  personal use - this is the

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse-
              quent  audio  tracks of the resulting CD will indi-
              cate that the audio data has no  permission  to  be
              copied anymore.

              If  the  master  image  for the next track has been
              stored on a raw disk, use this  option  to  specify
              the valid amount of data on this disk. If the image
              of the next track is stored in a regular file,  the
              size  of that file is taken to determine the length
              of this track.  If the track contains an  ISO  9660
              filesystem  image use the -isosize option to deter-
              mine the length of that filesystem image.
              In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that  use
              the  TEAC  programming  interface, even in Track at
              Once mode, dvdrecord needs to know the size of each
              track  before starting to write the disk.  Cdrecord
              now checks  this  and  aborts  before  starting  to
              write.   If  this  happens  you  will  need  to run
              mkisofs -print-size before and use the output as an
              argument to the tsize= option of dvdrecord.
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

       For  all  examples  below, it will be assumed that the CD-
       Recorder is connected to  the  primary  SCSI  bus  of  the
       machine. The SCSI target id is set to 2.

       To  record  a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from
       the file cdimage.raw:

           dvdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO  9660  filesystem  with  Rock
       Ridge extensions:

           mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To  check  the  resulting  file  before  writing  to CD on

           mount -r -F  fbk  -o  type=hsfs  /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If  the  overall speed of the system is sufficient and the
       structure of the filesystem is not too complex,  dvdrecord
       will  run  without  creating  an  image  of  the  ISO 9660
       filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           mkisofs -R /master/tree | dvdrecord -v  fs=6m  speed=2
       dev=2,0 -

       The   recommended  minimum  fifo  size  for  running  this
       pipeline is 4 MBytes.  As the default fifo size is  4  MB,
       the  fs= option needs only be present if you want to use a
       different fifo size.  If your system is loaded, you should
       run mkisofs in the real time class too.  To raise the pri-
       ority of mkisofs replace the command

           mkisofs -R /master/tree
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on systems that don't have  UNIX  International  compliant
       realtime scheduling.

       Cdrecord  runs  at  priority 59 on Solaris, you should run
       mkisofs at no more than priority 58. On other systems, you
       should run mkisofs at no less than nice --18.

       Creating  a  CD-ROM  without file system image on disk has
       been tested on a Sparcstation-2 with a Yamaha CDR-400.  It
       did work up to quad speed when the machine was not loaded.
       A faster machine may be able to handle quad speed also  in
       the loaded case.

       To  record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each
       track  contained  in   a   file   named   track01.cdaudio,
       track02.cdaudio, etc:

           dvdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  it  will  be ok to use double speed for the
       example above.  Use the dummy write option:

           dvdrecord   -v   -dummy   speed=2    dev=2,0    -audio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from
       cdimage.raw on the first track,  the  other  tracks  being
       audio tracks from the files track01.cdaudio, track02.cdau-
       dio, etc:

           dvdrecord  -v  -dummy   dev=2,0   cdimage.raw   -audio

       To  handle  drives  that  need to know the size of a track
       before starting to write, first run

           mkisofs -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           mkisofs -R /master/tree |  dvdrecord  speed=2  dev=2,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           cdda2wav -v255 -D2,0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           dvdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao -useinfo  *.wav

              This may either hold a device  identifier  that  is
              suitable  to  the  open  call of the SCSI transport
              library or a label in the file /etc/dvdrecord.conf.

              Sets  the default speed value for writing (see also
              -speed option).

              Sets the default size of the FIFO  (see  also  fs=#

              Default values can be set for the following options
              in /etc/dvdrecord.conf.   For  example:  CDR_FIFOS-
              IZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

                     This  may  either  hold  a device identifier
                     that is suitable to the  open  call  of  the
                     SCSI  transport  library  or  a label in the
                     file  /etc/dvdrecord.conf  that  allows   to
                     identify a specific drive on the system.

                     Sets  the  default  speed  value for writing
                     (see also -speed option).

                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see  also
                     fs=# option).

              Any other label
                     is an identifier for a specific drive on the
                     system.  Such an identifier may not  contain
                     the characters ',', '/', '@' or ':'.

                     Each  line  that  follows a label contains a
                     TAB separated  list  of  items.   Currently,
                     three  items  are recognized: the SCSI ID of
                     the drive, the default speed that should  be
                     used  for  this  drive  and the default FIFO
                     size that should be used for this drive. The
                     values  for speed and fifosize may be set to
                     -1 to  tell  dvdrecord  to  use  the  global
                     defaults.  A typical line may look this way:

                     teac1= 0,5,0   4    8m

                     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1   -1

                     This tells  dvdrecord  that  a  drive  named
                     teac1  is  at scsibus 0, target 5, lun 0 and
                     should be used with speed 4 and a FIFO  size
                     of  8  MB.   A  second drive may be found at
                     scsibus 1, target 6,  lun  0  and  uses  the
                     default speed and the default FIFO size.

       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), scg(7), fbk(7), mkisofs(8).

       On  Solaris  you need to stop the volume management if you
       like to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport  code.  Even
       things like dvdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume
       management is running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode are  not  suitable  as  a
       master  for  direct  mass  production by CD manufacturers.
       You will need the disk  at  once  option  to  record  such
       disks.   Nevertheless the disks made in Track At Once will
       normally be read in all CD  players.  Some  old  audio  CD
       players however may produce a two second click between two
       audio tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or  300  sectors.
       If  you  write  smaller  tracks,  the CD-Recorder will add
       dummy blocks. This is not an error, even though the  SCSI-
       error message looks this way.

       Dvdrecord  has  been  tested  on a Pioneer DVD-RW DVR-103,
       Firmware 1.55.  It is based on  Cdrecord  which  has  been
       tested  on  an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at single
       and double speed on a SparcStation 20/502  with  no  prob-
       lems, slower computer systems should work also.  The newer
       Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig  drives  as  well   as   Yamaha
       CDR-100  and  CDR-102 work also. The Plasmon RF-4100 work,
       but has not tested in multi session.   A  Philips  CDD-521
       that  has  not  been  upgraded  will  not  work.  The Sony
       CDU-924 has been tested, but does not support XA-mode2  in
       hardware.   The  sony  therefore  cannot create conforming
       multi session disks.  The Ricoh RO-1420C works,  but  some
       people seem to have problems to use them with speed=2, try
       speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha  CDR-400  and  all  new  SCSI-3/mmc  conforming
       drives are supported in single and multi-session.

       You  should  run  several tests in all supported speeds of
       your drive with the -dummy option turned  on  if  you  are
       using  dvdrecord  on  an unknown system. Writing a CD is a
       realtime process.  NFS will not always deliver  constantly
       the  needed data rates.  If you want to use dvdrecord with
       CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be
       sure  that  the fifo size is big enough.  I used Dvdrecord
       with with medium load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed
       on  a  Sparcstation-2  which was heavily loaded, but it is
       recommended to leave the system as lightly loaded as  pos-
       sible  while  writing a CD.  If you want to make sure that
       buffer underrungs are not caused by your source disk,  you
       may use the command

           dvdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to  create  a  disk  that  is entirely made of dummy data.
       Dvdrecord needs to run  as  root  to  get  access  to  the
       /dev/scg?  device nodes and to be able to lock itself into

       If you don't want to allow users to become  root  on  your
       system,  dvdrecord may safely be installed suid root. This
       allows all users or a group of users with no  root  privi-
       leges to use dvdrecord.  Dvdrecord in this case checks, if
       the real user would have been able to read  the  specified
       files.  To give all user access to use dvdrecord, enter:

            chown root /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
            chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord

       To  give  a  restricted group of users access to dvdrecord

            chown root /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
            chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
            chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write permissions for non  root  users  to  the
       /dev/scg?   devices  unless  you  would  allow  anybody to
       read/write/format all your disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support dis-
       connect/reconnect to either the SCSI bus that is connected
       to the CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks,  the
       data  should  be  on track 1 otherwise you should create a
       CDplus disk which is a multi session disk with  the  first
       session containing the audio tracks and the following ses-
       sion containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read  more  than  a
       single data track, or need special software to do so.

       More  information  on  the  SCSI  command  set of a HP CD-
       Recorder can be found at:


       If you have more information or SCSI command  manuals  for
       currently  unsupported  CD-Recorders  please  contact  the

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded ver-
       sion)  has  several firmware bugs. Some of them will force
       you to power cycle the device or to reboot the machine.

       You have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort dvdrecord after you
       see the message:

       Starting  to  write  CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s ses-

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              dvdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about  the  transport  of
       the  command.   The  text  after the first colon gives the
       error text for the system call from the view of  the  ker-
       nel.  It  usually is: I/O error unless other problems hap-
       pen. The next words contain a short  description  for  the
       SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if
       there were any problems for the transport of  the  command
       over the SCSI bus.  fatal error means that it was not pos-
       sible to transport the command (i.e. no device present  at
       the requested SCSI address).

       The  second  line prints the SCSI command descriptor block
       for the failed command.

       The third line gives information on the SCSI  status  code
       returned  by  the command, if the transport of the command
       succeeds.  This is error information from the SCSI device.

       The  fourth  line  is a hex dump of the auto request sense
       information for the command.

       The fifth line is the error text  for  the  sense  key  if
       available,  followed  by  the  segment number that is only
       valid if the command was a copy command. If the error mes-
       sage  is  not directly related to the current command, the
       text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the  sense  code  and
       the  sense  qualifier  if  available.   If the type of the
       device is known, the sense data is decoded from tables  in
       scsierrs.c  .  The text is followed by the error value for
       a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that  is  related
       to  the  failed  command and text for several error flags.
       The block number may not be valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command
       and the time that the command realy needed to be finished.

       The following message is not an error:
              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              dvdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than  the
       minimum size has been expanded to 300 sectors.

       Dvdrecord has even more options than ls.

       Dvdrecord  currently only warns if the input data will not
       fit on the disk.  If you don't abort the command you  will
       get unpredictable results.

       There should be an option to write index numbers for audio

       There should be a recover option  to  make  disks  usable,
       that have been written during a power failure.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on  his

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
                      For  creating the experimental packet writ-
                      ing support, the  first  implementation  of
                      CD-RW blanking support, the first .wav file
                      decoder  and  many  nice   discussions   on

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
                      For the first implementation os a BSDI SCSI

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
                      For creating the first parallel port trans-
                      port implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for  providing  the  CAM  port  for FreeBSD
                      together      with      Michael       Smith

       If  you  want  to actively take part on the development of
       cdrecord (on which dvdrecord is based), you may  join  the
       cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:


       and  include  the  word  subscribe  in the body.  The mail
       address of the list is:


       dvdrecord is currently maintained by bero@gnu.org.  It  is
       based on cdrecord:
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin

       Additional information on cdrecord can be found on:

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       Of you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       or schilling@fokus.gmd.de

       To subscribe, use:

       or  http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-sup-

Joerg Schilling          Version 1.11a03             DVDRECORD(1)

man cdrwtool

CDRWTOOL(1)                  Commands                 CDRWTOOL(1)

       cdrwtool  -  perform various actions on a CD-R, CD-RW, and

       cdrwtool -d device -i | -g

       cdrwtool -d device -s [ write-parameters ]

       cdrwtool -d device -q [ write-parameters ]

       cdrwtool -d device -m offset [ write-parameters ]

       cdwrtool -d device -u blocks [ write-parameters ]

       cdrwtool -d device -b b_mode [ write-parameters ]

       cdrwtool -d device -c blocks [ write-parameters ]

       cdwrtool -d device -f filename [ write-parameters ]

       cdwrtool -d device -r track [ write-parameters ]

       cdrwtool -h

       The cdwrtool command can perform certain actions on a  CD-
       R,  CD-RW,  or DVD-R device. Mainly these are blanking the
       media, formating it for use  with  the  packet-cd  device,

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