Version 5.4, 6.6, 7.x, 8.0 R.Ghosh, June 2013
PGPLOT is a general purpose graphics library written by T.J. Pearson from the California Institute of Technology. VA05A is a minimisation routine from the Harwell library written by M.J.D. Powell.
One characteristic of the program suite is the use of the Fortran COMMON to transfer variables internally. This exposes the variables for re-use outside the package, and allows new features to be introduced (e.g. the "4th Column" or error array which is managed by fitfun and also serves to plot error bars in the current (version 8.x) whilst retaining compatibility with versions back to version 6.0.
March 2013 (version 8.0)
Data arrays expanded to 21000, Fourth column (e.g. x-error) values propagated. Error bars may be plotted with command B [[X] [Y]. Sequence file integrated into main routine; see clickfit. Series of fits may propagate updated parameters, or re-use initial parameters. Clickfit now includes a command to interrupt a wildly unstable sequence!
August 2006, version 7.x
New features, primarily the addition of control through a file based inteface extend the programs through use of a GUI. Clickfit written using Tcl/Tk is an example, introducing a configurable user interface. Some new commands have been added, notably simplifying management of parameters for simultaneous fitting of several sets of data. The treatment of sequences is now integrated using a control file. The principal change to help this is the requirement that the READ-IN routine provided by the programmer now reads the command line left by the R command. Similarly the J command is also expected to read the command line. In both cases the command letter has been stripped before use. This simplifies interaction with the GUI, which simply has to issue single line commands.
August 2000, version 6.6
To fulfil a need to treat sequences of data a pre-processor stage has been included in the library, which simplifies the automatic treatment of sets of data using up to 2 data identifiers (typically run numbers and subrun numbers). Initially the standard fitfun is called and a typical set of data are fitted manually. After exiting this stage the fitted parameters are re-used for a sequence of fits, eith using the same set of parameters, or using those from the previous sequence member. More information is given in the Clickfit description.
The multi-dataset library fitfun 6.1, libffm.a remains unchanged.
The version treating one dataset at a time has been extended (v6.2) to handle 40 parameters. As a consequence for basic use the NAMEs set in the calling routine /TITLES/ must be extended from 20 to 40. In internal COMMONs (used by some programs) this change of dimension affects /CNSTRN/ and /ERRORC/
The current page describes the basic operations in version 6.6.
Working copies of the libraries may be found at ftp://ftp.ill.fr/pub/cs/fitfun. Versions cover different operating systems and compilers. Source code may be obtained from Ron Ghosh, reghosh(at)gmail.com.
New extensions have been added to fitfun to allow the simultaneous refinement of several datasets to find an optimum set of model parameters. This new version (6.0) is still compatible with single set fits programmed for version 5.4 which will eventually be phased out of use.
Data arrays have been increased to a maximum of 2100 data points.
Exit command now returns to the calling program, with options of skipping reinitialisations and keeping plotting files open. In the latter case the calling program must correctly terminate hardcopy output with CALL PGNEND(2).
In most fitting procedures setting reasonable starting values for parameters is important. By enabling these to be adjusted manually and displaying the model results it is possible to assess the sensitivity of the model to these parameters. This can often offer some physical insight into the problem under study! Initially a subset of parameters can be set with a finite step to allow them to be minimised by the fitting procedure. As convergence approaches additional parameters may be refined simultaneously. In this way rather complex problems may be studied without the fitting procedure becoming unstable or excessively time-consuming.
While it is attractive in terms of cpu time to use analytical derivatives to obtain accurate fits, this can often lead to local minima. Here all derivatives are obtained numerically, and VA05A is usually very good at finding a global minimum. Inevitably if the steps are made very small convergence can require many iterations. Analytical methods can converge very rapidly. Usually, dealing with experimental data, minima are flatter, and a minimum within reasonable experimental error suffices. It is not usually necessary to modify the numerical termination conditions used here (ACC, V 200). It does remain up to the user to play a little with the nominal step sizes for each type of problem. A set of data can then often be treated without futher modifying the steps.
A very simple example is given in appendix I. A more extensive example has also been prepared to show that the routine can be used for routine analysis, by using extensions foreseen in the program, and other routines in the libraries. To this end useful data elements used within FITFUN are identified, and other internal routines are described.
Commands consist of one letter followed by either numerical input (free format) or a letter code (upper or lower case); fields should be separated by blanks or commas. Often the program would be used following the sequence given below.
R [possible input data fields]
The READIN routine is called after this command, and it makes a new spectrum available to the fitting routine.
The current spectrum is plotted.
The current variable values are displayed. These are read initially from a file named "pnam".ffn, where "pnam" is a four character name defined in the MAIN routine. Parameter numbers 100, 200 and 300 control the fitting procedure (see below) and are not often modified.
V n v s
The n th variable is set to the value v, and if it is to be fitted the step s is set to 1. If the model seems very sensitive to this parameter the value of the step should be reduced to .1 or smaller and converse. It may be that the model algorithm should be recast. Normally this should not be necessary. The variation of the n th parameter can be constrained by being tied to a preceding parameter n' if s is set to -n'.
X min max
If both min and max are absent or 0 the current spectrum scale limits are displayed. These may be modified to the new values if these are none-zero.
Y min max
See above - as for X scale.
Without an argument the fit with the current parameters is shown together with the residual (sum of F(I)**2) normalised by the the number of points. If the spectrum or fitting range is smaller than the plotting limits and the Only option has selected a restricted range then the calculated graph is extrapolated to the plot limits. (First set the x axis limits, then set the O options). The difference between the observed and calculated values are displayed offset with zero at 80% of the yscale limits, with the same scale factors. Adjusting the y-scale limits may be necessary to reduce overlap with the calculated curve and data.
The fit as given above for F is written out into the second plotting device defined. Usually this is a PostScript file.
F n [N]
Fitting is started with a maximum limit of n iterations. In general this should be of the order m**2 where m parameters are being fitted simultaneously. As fitting proceeds the step lengths for each variable are also optimised. As a consequence giving a subsequent F command to continue fitting further iterations resets the step sizes, and the effect is different from giving a larger total number initially. If the letter N is added then no intermediate plots will be made.
This produces a summary [or full listing] of the current fit on the terminal and a file "pnam"xx.lis is produced which may be be printed after leaving the program.
This toggles a cursor on or off for the next D, display command to allow the current spectrum to be measured-up on-screen.
O a b c d e f
The spectrum is only fitted in the non-zero ranges:
a<x<b, c<x<d, e<x<f
The command O alone resets all points into the range to be fitted.
The current parameters are saved in the file "pnam".ffn; this permits an easy re-use for a subsequent analysis, or simply to save current values while they are subject to delicate manual adjustment. (Quit or interrupt program; then restarting will re-read a saved "good"set of starting values!)
This clears the plotting screen, useful in some terminal environments.
The argument should contain five letters or numbers. The program writes out the observed and calculated values into a file "name.fpl". The format of this file is given in appendix 3.
The program calls a subroutine FTEXTP (a dummy routine is always included in the library and is loaded when no personalised routine is included). This enables the user to perform additional tasks, e.g. in FIRR and TAPPIR component plots are made of separate contributions to the resultant curve. The routine can make use of variables stored in COMMON areas - see the extended example.
The additional text is placed on the following graphical output.
seqfilname is the name of a file containing information for treating a sequence of data; a simple example follows:
M filseq.fsq fileseq.fsq: gtst sequence title fitseq.out output filename (comma separated parameters/deviations for each fit) T Reuse first trial (T) or update (U)parameters for next set 50 Number of iterations r.spc 3.5 input data for each fit as R command s.spc 4.2 : t.spc 4.9 :
G n1 s n2
Groups stepping of parameter n2 to parameter n1 with step s (This simplifies establishing links as an alternative to the F command using negative steps).
A summary of the above instructions is typed out. If the programmer has himself provided a subroutine FTXHLP then this replaces the dummy in the library, and offers a way of adding further annotation on program use.
CALL FITFUN (PNAM, READIN, CALSUB) Input PNAM character*4 four characters to be used as the program name to identify the parameter file "PNAM.ffn" and any listing file as "PNAMnn.lis" READIN the name of a user supplied routine defined in a Fortran EXTERNAL statement. This subroutine will be called after each R command to read-in fresh data. Note COMMONs private to the MAIN and READIN may also be used to store useful data for calculations. In FIRR, for example numerical resolution spectra are held in this way. CALSUB the name of a user supplied routine defined in a Fortran EXTERNAL statement. This routine is called repeatedly during the fitting procedure to recalculate the model as the parameters are varied. As indicated above COMMONs may also hold local data values.
This serves primarily to provide titles for the parameters to be used by the fitting routine. The program name PNAM is used to identify the file "PNAM.ffn" containing saved parameters. It should therefore only contain alphabetic or numeric characters. It is also used to generate a systematic listing file name PNAMmm.lis; hence it is useful to use lowercase letters for PNAM in a Unix environment. The remaining text fields label the plotting scales and individual variables. The workspace is set in COMMON/WORK. That shown in the example is adequate to treat about 128 data varying 10 parameters. It may be expanded as a first solution should bizarre behaviour be encountered. EXTERNAL statements are used to allow flexibility in naming subroutines for reading in data (READIN) and the model fitting function CALSUB. PNAM, TX and TY and TEXT are all character fields. The labelled COMMON/VERSION/VERP allows the user to set VERP, a REAL*4 variable, which may be used to show the program version to the user. The value of VERP should be less than 100.
CALL READIN (NPNTS, XOBS, YOBS, YERR, TEXT) READIN returns NPNTS integer*4 the number of points read-in XOBS) real*4 arrays of spectrum to be fitted YOBS) observed values, and errors YERR) TEXT character*50 an identifying titleThe data arrays are not modified by the fitting routines; subsets of points can be selected ("O" or Only command) feeds a second copy into the fitting routines. Note READIN may have questions within it to slect a part of a larger data-file, and it may also load up private COMMONs to pass other data, e.g. resolution function arrays to the calculation subroutine. Unless the standard library is recompiled the data arrays XOBS,YOBS,YERR should not exceed 2100 elements each.
CALL CALSUB( NPAR,PARM,NFIT,XUSE,YUSE,YRUSE,YCALC,F) Input NPAR integer*4 the number of parameters named in MAIN PARM real*4 array of parameters for model NFIT integer*4 number of data to fit XUSE,YUSE, YRUSE real*4 arrays of preselected data, x values, y and errors in y. Returned YCALC real*4 array of calculated function at each XUSE value F real*4 array to be minimised at each XUSE valueThe array F will be examined by the fitting routine after each iteration to find a set of paramters which will minimise the SUM(F(x)**2). This array might be simply YCALC-YUSE, a function thereof, or the errors may be introduced as a pre-weighting by the programmer. Additional data may be introduce via private COMMON blocks. The YCALC array is used specifically for displaying the function for direct comparison with the input data. Internal arrays in the calculation routines should permit 200 points to be calculated (for display and output purposes). If errors are available (non-zero) then CHI-squared is calculated.
The parameters can also be used as a simple way of choosing a type of model to be used, by testing it within CALSUB, though clearly the step should then be set always at 0.0!
In programming this calculation routine the programmer must be aware that values in the X-array XUSE may be incommensurate with the original data, and that there may be discontinuous steps in the values. This is of primary importance in performing convolution fits. Here it is necessary to perform calculations in local arrays, which cover a range at least equal to that of XUSE values. The results can then be returned to YCALC by simple linear interpolation, for example, providing that the local arrays represent the function with a sufficiently fine mesh. In this type of problem the calculation thus requires:
Problems may arise when the set of parameters are grossly different, e.g. fitting a peak with a half width of 6 channels between channel values 1500 and 1550. Under these circumstances it is clear that the peak position must be varied with a step of 0.001 rather than unity. Often the need to modify the step size should be evident as the initial fits are displayed. Once fitting has started the routine modifies the step sizes used for each parameter. There is consequently a difference between requesting F 25 twice over, and F 50. In the first case the initial step sizes are reset before iterations 26-50, and a 10% (for V 300 0.1) change is re-invoked before the second go at fitting.
At the expense of requiring many more iterations the value of the general SUBSTEP may be reduced when the model appears overly sensitive (e.g. set V 300 0.02 for a 2% initial shift). Inspection of the modified parameters (V) will also show-up cases where the individual parameter's step has been set too small such that modifying it has no appreciable effect on the residual sum. If, after a few iterations extending the step by small amounts there is still no effect then no further changes are attempted.
The final accuracy to attain for termination is controlled by ACC (parameter 200); this is estimated as ACC*0.001*(initial residual value).
If no improvement to the fit arises due to the sizes of these initial steps the routine will fail to advance. Reduce the steps for obviously oversensitive parameters, or recast the calculation.
No minimum is also signalled when after proceeding through a number of iterations shows no improvement greater than the termination condition. Often by this stage the results are acceptable, within the limitations of the data.
One further fitting control is DMAX (paramter 100), which is a metrix of the total change in parameters. This is normally set to 100, and is rarely changed, so it is reset to this value by the program on starting, and is not conserved in the parameter file.
The deviations and the covariance matrix are only evaluated correctly at the minimum. Values in the covariance matrix less than about 20% may be considered as being subject to large errors, bur indicate that there is no significant parameter correlation. This may be expected when off-diagonal terms exceed 50%.
at present the routines are compiled with limits of a maximum of 40 named parameters, with data arrays limited to 21000 elements. VA05A requires a workspace array which is defined in the MAIN program and should not be less than that shown in the example. Use with more parameters or larger data fields require modification of the source code and recompiling. If problems related to overwriting the workspace are evident then COMMON/WORK/SPACE(3000000) should be increased as a first attempt to resolve the error.
Units 1 and 2 are used for internal file-handling.
Unit 16 is used for the listing file output.
Units 5,6 are used for terminal input and output respectively.
The program must be loaded with the ILL PGPLOT library, (Unix,PC, OpenVMS) together with the X11 library (Unix). One simple way of identifying the libraries simply is to create a link in the local directory each library file
Note: for SGI several cpu architectures are available. By default IRIX 6.5 uses n32 format. The older (o32) format is used by setting the environment variable as in the following example:
setenv SGI_ABI -32 ln -s /usr/ill/lib/libfitfun62_o32.a libfitfun.a ln -s /usr/ill/lib/libpgplot520_o32.a libpgplot.a the program is then linked as follows: f77 -o myprog myprog.f myread.f mycalc.f libfitfun.a libpgplot.a -lX11 for MinGW (PCs) g77 -o myprog myprog.f myread.f mycalc.f libffn70m.a libpggw520.a -Wl,--subsystem,console -mwindows
These are for the plotting library. The graphs expect a form with a width/height aspect ratio of 4:3 For A4 output in PostScript Landscape layout (/CPS) should be chosen for one graph per page. In the examples below two pictures per page are set, with portrait mode selected.
for Unix % setenv PGPLOT_DIR /usr/ill/lib %# directory containing font file etc. % setenv PGPLOT_ILL_DEV_1 /XSERV %#X server - pgxwin_server % setenv PGPLOT_ILL_DEV_2 /VCPS %#Colour PostScript hardcopy - portrait format % setenv PGPLOT_ILL_PPAGE 2 %# two pictures per page for VMS $ DEFINE PGPLOT_DIR ILLLIB etc., and for PCs c:>SET PGPLOT_DIR=C:\PGPLOT C:>SET PGPLOT_ILL_DEV_1=/GW C:>SET PGPLOT_ILL_DEV_2=/VCPS
This simple program reads a formatted data file and fits a Gaussian curve with a sloping background.
PROGRAM FTEST C***** BASIC EXAMPLE ROUTINE FOR FITFUN C***** Link FTEST,MYREAD,GAUSS,FITFUN/LIB,LIBPG/LIB C HP setenv LPATH /lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/lib/X11R5 C HP f77 -o ftst ftst.o myread.o gauss.o libfitfun.a -lpgplot -lX11 -lU77 C IRIX f77 -o ftst ftst.o myread.o gauss.o libfitfun.a libpgplot.a -lX11 C EXTERNAL MYREAD,GAUSS C C***** MYREAD IS A USER SUPPLIED ROUTINE TO READ IN ONE SPECTRUM EACH CALL C C***** GAUSS IS A USER'S ROUTINE TO CALCULATE THE REQUIRED FUNCTION C COMMON/TITLES/NAMES(40),TX,TY COMMON/TITLEP/NPARAS COMMON/WORK/W(3000000) C***** THIS IS SUFFICIENT FOR 21000 DATA AND 40 PARAMETERS ! COMMON/VERSION/VERP C***** VERP IS TYPED BY THE PROGRAM INDICATING THE CURRENTLY RUNNING VERSION C CHARACTER*8 NAMES CHARACTER*4 PNAM CHARACTER*20 TX,TY C DATA NAMES/'Centre ','Sigma','Flat Bkd','Slope', 1'Height',35*' '/ DATA PNAM/'ftst'/ DATA TX/'Channel'/ DATA TY/'Counts'/ DATA NPARAS/5/ C VERP=3.1 C***** Sets a version for fitfuns to print out as identification WRITE(6,1) VERP 1 FORMAT(' FTST - Simple Demonstration program for Fitfun'// 1' Version ',F4.1,' August 1999 (REG)'/) C***** SIGNIFIES THIS IS VERSION 3.0 of FTEST CALL FITFUN(PNAM,MYREAD,GAUSS) C END SUBROUTINE FTXHLP(IOTTY) COMMON/VERSION/VERP WRITE(6,1) VERP 1 FORMAT(' FTST - Simple Demonstration program for Fitfun'// 1' Version ',F4.1,' August 1999 (REG)'/) RETURN ENDRead-in routine
SUBROUTINE MYREAD(NPNTS,XOBS,YOBS,YERR,NTEXT) c***** uses command line input c..... GUI error out COMMON/TINC/PNAM,RET80 COMMON/REPLY/RESOUT DIMENSION XOBS(*),YOBS(*),YERR(*) CHARACTER*50 NTEXT CHARACTER*20 FNAME CHARACTER LINE*80,LINED*81 CHARACTER PNAM*4,RET80*80,RESOUT*80 EQUIVALENCE (LINE,LINED) LINED(81:81)='/' 10 NPNTS=0 READ(RET80,*) FNAME 2 FORMAT(A) c FNAME=RET80 OPEN(UNIT=10,FILE=FNAME,ACCESS='SEQUENTIAL',STATUS='OLD',ERR=99) C***** NOTE UNIT IS NOT 1 C***** SIMPLY FORMATTED FILE READ(10,3,ERR=99,END=99) NTEXT 3 FORMAT(A) C***** THIS CAN SERVE AS A TITLE FOR THE SPECTRUM DO 5 I=1,180 READ(10,6,END=99) LINE READ(LINED,*) XOBS(I),YOBS(I),YERR(I) C***** PICKS EITHER 2 OR 3 VALUES PER LINE 6 FORMAT(A) NPNTS=I 5 CONTINUE 99 CLOSE(UNIT=10) IF(NPNTS.LE.5) GO TO 12 WRITE(6,9) NTEXT 9 FORMAT(' TITLE: ',A/) WRITE(6,11) NPNTS WRITE(RESOUT,11) NPNTS 11 FORMAT(1X,I4,' DATA HAVE BEEN READ IN') 1111 RETURN 12 WRITE(6,98) 98 FORMAT(' INSUFFICIENT DATA TO CONTINUE') C***** DO NOT RETURN UNTIL SOME GOOD DATA ARE READ RESOUT='ERR: INSUFFICIENT DATA TO CONTINUE' GO TO 1111 ENDCalculation routine
SUBROUTINE GAUSS(NPAR,PARM,NFIT,XUSE,YUSE,YRUSE,YCALC,F) C C Calculation of F and YCALC for gaussian C DIMENSION PARM(NPAR) DIMENSION YCALC(NFIT),XUSE(NFIT),YUSE(NFIT) 1,YRUSE(NFIT),F(NFIT) C C DO 10 I=1,NFIT C***** YCALC will contain calculated function for plotting/listing YCALC(I)= PARM(5) * 1 EXP(-0.5*((XUSE(I)-PARM(1))/PARM(2))**2) 1 +PARM(3) + PARM(4)*XUSE(I) F(I)=YCALC(I)-YUSE(I) C***** F will be minimised by VA05A; no weighting is used here 10 CONTINUE C C RETURN ENDA small test data set, test.dat, follows:
TOF data at 1.5K 300.0 28.00 5.29 301.0 19.00 4.34 302.0 9.000 3.00 303.0 28.00 5.29 304.0 31.00 5.57 305.0 30.00 5.48 306.0 50.00 7.07 307.0 82.00 9.06 308.0 92.00 9.59 309.0 277.0 16.64 310.0 882.0 29.70 311.0 2573. 50.72 312.0 5164. 71.86 313.0 7586. 87.10 314.0 8238. 90.76 315.0 6453. 80.33 316.0 3663. 60.52 317.0 1473. 38.38 318.0 450.0 21.21 319.0 128.0 11.31 320.0 68.00 8.25 321.0 53.00 7.28 322.0 34.00 5.83 323.0 33.00 5.74 324.0 24.00 4.90 325.0 24.00 4.90As an exercise the starting values should be entered manually. Below is a copy of typical values which have been stored in ftst.ffn
ftst V 3.1 using FITFUN V 7.0 12-Aug-2006 16:10:26 0.05 0.1000E-01 H(Substep), ACC 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 FITTING LIMITS 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 FITTING LIMITS 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 FITTING LIMITS 300.0 350.0 X PLOTTING LIMITS 0.0000E+00 0.1200E+05 Y PLOTTING LIMITS 311.0 0.0100 CENTRE 2.000 0.1000 SIGMA 30.00 1.000 FLAT BAK 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 SLOPE 8000. 1.000 HEIGHTA Script for the test session follows:
is1 146% ftst ftst version 3.1 TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,Z ftst>r test.dat TITLE: TOF data at 1.5K 26 DATA HAVE BEEN READ IN THERE ARE 26 DATA POINTS IN CURRENT FITTING RANGE TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>v FITFUN 7.0 TITLE: TOF data at 1.5K FITTING Y : COUNTS VERSUS X : CHANNEL NUMBER PARAMETER VALUE ( OLD VALUE ) STEP % DEVIATION 1 CENTRE 311.0 ( 311.0 ) 0.1000E-01 0.0 2 SIGMA 2.000 ( 2.000 ) 0.1000 0.0 3 FLAT BAK 30.00 ( 30.00 ) 1.000 0.0 4 SLOPE 0.0000E+00( 0.0000E+00) 0.0000E+00 0.0 5 HEIGHT 8000. ( 8000. ) 1.000 0.0 100 MAXIMUM STEP 100.0 300 SUBSTEP 0.05000 200 ACCURACY 0.1000E-01 THERE ARE 26 POINTS IN THE CURRENT RANGE SET BY "ONLY" COMMAND. CURRENT LIMITS (IF RANGE IS NON-ZERO) ARE : 0.000E+00 TO 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 TO 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 TO 0.000E+00 TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>f
TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>f 100 FITTING..... .....ENDED
TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>f
TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>p TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>l FITFUN 7.0 TITLE: TOF data at 1.5K FITTING Y : COUNTS FIT NUMBER 1 VERSUS X : CHANNEL NUMBER PARAMETER VALUE ( OLD VALUE ) STEP % DEVIATION 1 CENTRE 313.7 ( 311.0 ) 0.1000E-01 0.0 2 SIGMA 1.762 ( 2.000 ) 0.1000 0.2 3 FLAT BAK 28.53 ( 30.00 ) 1.000 18.6 4 SLOPE 0.0000E+00( 0.0000E+00) 0.0000E+00 0.0 5 HEIGHT 8304. ( 8000. ) 1.000 0.2 100 MAXIMUM STEP 100.0 SUBSTEP 0.05000 200 ACCURACY 0.1000E-01 CURRENT RESIDUAL VALUE : 4.8100 THERE ARE 26 POINTS IN THE CURRENT RANGE SET BY "ONLY" COMMAND. CURRENT LIMITS (IF RANGE IS NON-ZERO) ARE : 0.000E+00 TO 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 TO 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 TO 0.000E+00 Mean R-factor is now 23. % (old value 0.00E+00%) Reduced CHI-squared is now 5.3 for 22 degrees of freedom (old value 0.00E+00) Chi-squared probability is 0.640E-14 TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>e DO YOU WISH TO SAVE THE CURRENT PARAMETER VALUES ? (Y) n Closing listing file ftst068.lis %PGPLOT, Completing PostScript file ftst067.ps is1 147% lp ftst067.ps is1 148% lp ftst068.lisAlthough the fit looks impeccable, the chi-squared is quite large. If the final graph is rescaled, giving the commands
TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>y 0 500 TYPE HELP OR OPTION: H,R,D,X,Y,V,F,O,P,L,W,C,E,J,S,T,M,G,Z ftst>fit is then possible to see that there is a marked discrepancy between the simplistic model and the real data, which is reflected in both the R factor and Chi-squared.